Thursday, April 6, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Production

ANALYTICAL MODELING OF INPUT ENERGY CONSUMPTION,SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE IN BALL END MILLING OPERATION by Aashish Dhiman

Abstract
Ball end milling operation is commonly used for producing flat and contoured surfaces of manufacturing dies and moulds etc. due to its high quality and productivity nature. It is very sensitive
manufacturing operation because of complex tool geometry and involvement of large number of process parameters. The energy consumption, surface quality and Material Removal Rate (MRR) play a vital role for any manufacturing process to be sustainable. The present work presents an analytical approach to predict energy consumption, surface roughness and MRR during ball end milling operation. The modeling procedure begins with analytical prediction of uncut and cut chip geometry followed by the evaluation of the associated angles and further determination of the cutting forces. These cutting forces, cutting speed and milling time were used to calculate the energy consumption during the operation. In analytical model of surface roughness, the cusp height was calculated from topography of the surface produced by the ball end mill tool geometry which was further used to calculate the theoretical average surface roughness (��). The analytical models of MRR were developed from geometry and the impressions left by the ball end mill on the work surface. Experiments were performed using 6 mm diameter ball end mill on CNC Vertical Milling Center on EN8 material work piece for different speeds (1000, 1500, 2000 RPM), different feed rates (400, 600, 800 mm/min) and different depth of cuts (0.10, 0.15, 0.25 mm) to validate the proposed analytical models. The radial depth of cut was kept 1 mm during all experiments. The proposed analytical model of energy consumption shows comparatively higher error than the error found by calculating energy consumption based upon cutting forces model available in literature (Sonawane and Joshi, 2010) for EN8 material whereas it shows comparatively less error for Inconel 718 material. An error of 94.044 % to 122.793 % and -52.593 % to -28.705 % had been observed in predicting surface roughness and MRR respectively by the proposed analytical models. The results predicted by the proposed analytical models of surface roughness and MRR matches exactly with the expected results of surface roughness and MRR presented in Table 1 in the research paper by Quintana et al. (2010) but the final equations for these models by them not give satisfactory results. The effect of the various machining variables on the different input and output parameters predicted by the proposed models comes out to be of the same trend as observed in the literature.

Friday, March 3, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Civil

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RO PLANTS IN MALWA REGION by Hardeep Singh 

Abstract
There has been a continuous decrease in the availability of fresh water resources for daily routine purposes nowadays and in the recent past especially in developing countries. Though the urban areas have well developed facilities for fresh water availability but the major issue is in the rural areas which are deprived of both centralized and decentralized treatment facilities. One such region is the Malwa region of Punjab state where high water contamination problems have been incurred. These regions were equipped with high RO plants by the government of Punjab in 25 villages with one RO system for each village in order to provide proper drinking water supplies for the inhabitants. But the regions were still continuously faced with health problems. So this study was conducted in order to evaluate the performance of RO systems in five such villages by collecting water samples from the RO inlet, pure and rejected RO waste and also determining their effect on the surrounding ground water by collecting samples along the RO site periphery at distances of 200-800 feet at an interval of 200 feet each which has a bore hole depth of 40-60 feet. Further this study assessed the power consumption and running costs of these RO systems and hence evaluating their overall performance efficiency in terms of treatment efficiency, impact on the surrounding ground water resources and their power consumption and hence running costs. The results showed that the TDS and sulphate values almost doubled in each case of RO reject as compared to RO inlet which could be a reason for increase in the TDS and sulphate values in the surrounding areas signifying the negative effect of RO reject on the surrounding ground water. Likewise, the hardness, fluoride and chloride content showed
a significant increase in RO reject which could again be linked to their increased values in the surrounding ground water. The contamination in the surrounding area due to RO reject could be linked to the diffusion of contaminants. Also, the RO pure showed the presence of total coli form in the drinking water which was to get treated by UV lamp and hence raises a question on the RO working. However, turbidity, pH and nitrate did not show much variation in the inlet and reject values but the nitrate value was more than the permissible value. Further, the comparison of values of the east and west direction and also of north and south direction gave an indication of the hydraulic gradient of the areas which was again a reason for increased values in one particular direction. The cost analysis showed that approx. 60,000 rupees are spent by the government on one RO plant monthly. The study concluded that in spite of a lot of expenditure by the government on these RO plants, their performance is not up to the mark; instead they have served as a source of increasing ground water pollution which calls for a need of further treatment of RO reject water. 

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Computer Science

SVM BASED SPOKEN NUMERALS RECOGNITION FOR PUNJABI LANGUAGE by Satbir Kaur 

Abstract
The advances in digital signal processing technology had led the introduction of speech processing in several applications like speech compression, enhancement, synthesis, and recognition. In this thesis the problem of speech recognition is studied and a speaker dependent, medium vocabulary, isolated numerals speech recognition system has been developed for Punjabi language. The study implements the Support Vector Machine based isolated numerals speech recognizer in three steps. The primary step performs the end point detection, framing and windowing of the speech signal. The second step includes speech feature extraction using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients. Finally, in the last step the Support Vector Machine is primarily used as recognizer and classifier for numeral of Punjabi language. The system is ready to understand the spoken utterances in Punjabi language, by removing the unwanted noise and unsuitable data from the speech signal and then translating the speech wave into quality of feature vectors. These vectors are given to SVM to predict the spoken word in written form. The Support vector machine classifier is wide used and given high accuracy. SVM has the ability to deal with high dimensional knowledge and is used in many real world problems like text categorization, character recognition and classification.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Civil

STUDY OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE MADE WITH BINARY AND TERNARY CEMENTIOUS BLENDS OF GROUND GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG AND RICE HUSK ASH by Brahamjot S. Chaswall 

Abstract
Sustainable development in construction industry is aimed at improving the quality of life for everyone now and for the next generations. It encompasses environmental, economic and social dimensions, as well as the concept of stewardship, the proper management of resources used in construction and particularly concrete production in India being the second largest producer of cement in the world. The future challenge for the construction industry in India is clearly to meet the growing demand for infrastructure development and housing while at the same time limiting the impact of its burdens in CO2 emissions due to construction by use of alternative materials in construction and supplementary cementing materials as partial replacements to Ordinary Portland Cement.As we know concrete occupies unique position among the modern construction materials. Concrete is a material used in building construction, consisting of a hard, chemically inert particulate substance, known as aggregate (usually made for different types of sand and gravel), that is bond by cement and water. Concrete is normally used in the frame structure. But there is some limitation like compaction, surface finishes, maintaining strength at congested area. Due to these limitations we are trying to make self- compacting concrete with the use of mineral admixture. Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. Self-Compacting Concrete has properties that differ considerably from conventional concrete. This study investigates the workability and Compressive Strength properties of Self-Compacting Concrete containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Rice Husk Ash with super plasticizer and viscosity modifying agent. EUCOPLACANT 721 was used as super plasticizer and STRUCTRO 100 was used as Viscosity modifying agent. In this experimental program, trials were made at varying replacement levels (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of Rice Husk Ash. The workability properties of SCC such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance are evaluated using workability tests such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box tests. The compressive strength of the cubes at 7 days and 28 days are also obtained. The result obtained from the study proves that use of GGBS increases the Compressive strength of SCC by replacing cement to a percentage of 30% ,if the percentage is taken more than 30% the Compressive strength of SCC decreases. In case of GGBS and RHA combination the strength is highest by replacing cement with 5% of RHA and 30% of GGBS.

Monday, January 23, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Electrical

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF HYBRID; SOLAR AND BIOMASS POWER PLANT by Aanchal Jain 

Abstract
The thesis is the study of combined solar and biomass hybrid arrangement for the generation of electric power. In developing country like India, the electricity demand is rising continuously but the coal reserves for electricity generation are at the verge of depletion. So there is a need of paying attention towards the alternative sources of energy generation. Renewable energy sources are the best choice as they provide clean energy and overcome global warming. But there are certain problems in operating these sources as stand-alone systems. So it will be highly beneficial if both stand-alone systems work together as hybrid system because hybrid system will provide reliable and continuous power without depending upon main system and support farmers financially by consuming biomass from their fields. The present study intends to fulfill high electricity demands by utilizing solar  energy and biomass (agri-residue) potential available in different villages of Hoshiarpur. The objective of thesis is to investigate the feasibility of hybrid solar-biomass power plant in village Binjon in Hoshiarpur district of Punjab. On the basis of data collected from different organizations and dealers, the biomass potential, per unit cost of generation from hybrid system and payback period is analyzed using MATLAB. The proposed hybrid system is designed with per unit cost of Rs 8.39. Less per capita expenditure is an index of development of any nation and by using such hybrid systems we can get less per capita expenditure values

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Civil

Durability Properties of Self Compacting Concrete with Recycled Aggregate and Silica Fume by Mohd Ishfaq 

Abstract
Concrete is widely used construction materials. As we know, it is a mixture of coarse aggre-gates, fine aggregates, binded together by cement with addition of water. Concrete which is highly flow able and can fill the form work under its own weight, consolidates without any mechanical vibration is known as selfcompacting concrete, thus cause self-compaction. Such concrete accelerate the time of placement, reduce the labour work needed for consolidation, finishing and reduces environmental pollution. The so called first generation SCC is used mainly for repair applications and in restricted areas where it is not possible to reach easily, comprising sections that present limited access to vibrate. It has been used in applications justifying the higher material and quality control cost when considering the simplified placement and handling requirements of the concrete. Silica fume is one of the best improvements of the rheological as well as the mechanical and good chemical properties. It also improves the dura-bility of the concrete. In this present study, tests on replacement of coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates and replacement of silica fumes with cement had been done. Tests were conducted for fresh prop-erties of self compacting concrete, i.e. filling ability, passing ability, segregation resistance, so as for obtaining fresh properties according to SCC EFNARC 2002 concrete mix. The different durability properties such as chloride penetration depth, abrasion resistance, were determined on various concrete mixes. Their compressive strength was also found. Replacement by silica fume decreases chloride penetration depth, depth of wear. Concrete mix having 50% recycled aggregate and 10% silica fume replacement had comparable durability in term of the chloride depth, abrasion resistance.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Civil

INFLUENCE OF NANO-SILICA AND GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG ON CEMENT USING STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT by Arvinder Singh 

Abstract
Cement and concrete have been subjected to modification in earlier research works for the enhancement in its properties. However investigating the properties of concrete at nano-level is a comparatively new concept and nanotechnology can be applied to Civil Engineering by various concepts including addition of nanomaterials like Nano-Silica. On the other hand, use of waste materials as a replacement of cement is the need of the hour and the waste materials like furnace slag does possess cementetious character. This study was performed to study the effect of addition of Nano-Silica (Nano-SiO2) (0 - 3% by weight of cement) and waste material Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) (25 – 65% by weight of cement) on the physical properties of cement like Standard Consistency, Setting times, Compressive Strength at the ages of 7, 28 days. For structuring and analyzing the experiment, the Factorial design approach was adopted. From the study it was observed that addition of even small amount of Nano-Silica can drastically change the characteristics of cement like increase in the early age strength by 15% for 3% Nano-Silica replacement due to the acceleration of hydration of cement, but it also caused the increase in consistency limit from 28% to 31%. The setting times were also drastically reduced with addition of Nano-Silica. GGBS addition however resulted in slowed the hydration reaction, decrease in strength gain and water requirement due to its low hydraulic reactivity. However, by adding GGBS alongwith Nano-Silica it restricted the drastic drop in setting times of cement and also resulted in increased compressive strength by 11% at 2% Nano-Silica and 45% GGBS replacement due to the consumption of Ca(OH)2 and formation of additional C-S-H by both Nano-Silica and GGBS. Beyond the range 2% Nano-Silica and 45% GGBS the strength reduction was noticed probably due the decrease in the available free lime concentration at high concentrations of Nano-Silica and GGBS. The analysis of above experiment was carried out using factorial design of experiment, ANOVA was adopted for analysis of the 28-day Compressive strength which gave the result that Nano-Silica had more profound effect on strength of cement. Regression analysis was adopted to derive a relationship between the compressive strength of cement and different proportions of Nano-Silica and GGBS.

Friday, December 2, 2016

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Civil

THE EFFECTS OF REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT AND SAND IN CONCRETE BY MARBLE POWDER by Himanshu Sharma

Abstract
Marble powder (MP) is a fine powder, formed as a waste product of marble sawing and shaping and can not be recycled due to problems that effects the environment. There is a possibility of using marble powder as partial replacement of cement and sand in concrete mix. In this study, the possibility of using marble powder in cement and concrete production was examined by studying the effects of blending the marble powder with cement and sand and checking the physical properties of fresh and hardened concrete. In studying the performance of concrete, a total of eighteen concrete mixes were prepared with replacement of cement and sand with marble powder ranging from 5% to 20% at an increment of 5% by weight. For each replacement value, two classes of concrete, M-35 and M-40, mixes were prepared for both cement and sand replacement cases. The investigation indicates that replacement of cement by marble waste powder for 5% value, in concrete production, results increase in comparable compressive strength as of concrete specimens without marble powder with slight slump reduction for both M-35 and M-40 classes. Increment of replacement beyond 15%, in concrete production, results in reduction of compressive strength and slump. Replacement of sand by marble powder from 5-20% , in concrete production, results in similar and mostly enhanced performance than the control concrete specimens; with slightl increase in compressive strength and slight slump improvement in both mixes. The Split tensile strength of Cylinders are increasing with addition of marble powder up to 15% when replaced by weight of cement and after that addition of waste marble powder it decreases the Split tensile strength .

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Computer Science

DEVELOPMENT OF MOBILE APPLICATION FOR ROUTE NAVIGATION by Vandana Toor 

Abstract
Rоuting is оnе оf оur basiс aсtivity that wе pеrfоrm in оur еvеryday lifе, whеthеr it’s abоut tо rеaсh thе оffiсе whеrе wе wоrk frоm hоmе, tо gо fоr sоmе party in еvеning frоm hоmе. Hеrе basiсally is fосusеd rоuting frоm sоurсе tо dеstinatiоn. Sоurсе pоint is thе pоint frоm whеrе wе start and dеstinatiоn pоint is whеrе wе stоp. This thеsis wоrk is abоut dеvеlоping a mоbilе appliсatiоn fоr rоutе traсking using оpеn sоurсе data. Thе widеsprеad usе оf оpеn sоurсе prоjесt is duе tо thе faсt that it is еxpandablе, еditablе and usеablе frееly, withоut any сhargеs impоsеd. It is tоtally frее оf сhargеs. A numbеr оf оpеn sоurсе maps arе usеd hеrе and diffеrеnt typеs оf vеhiсlеs fоr thе usеrs tо traсk rоutе arе madе whiсh is gеnеratеd fоr thе sеlесtеd pоints. Fеw mоrе additiоnal fеaturеs arе prоvidеd fоr thе usеr likе tоtal timе and distanсе fоr thе rоutе it traсks, instruсtiоns tо rеaсh thе еnd pоint, еtс. This appliсatiоn has twо divisiоns, оnе is tеxtual and thе оthеr is graphiсal whеrе maps arе shоwn. Usеr сan prоvidе input by writing dоwn thе rеquirеd pоints in thе tеxt fiеlds оr it сan usе maps fоr prоviding input, i.е. by сliсking оn thе map frоm whеrе thе usеr dеsirеs tо find thе rоutе. Turn by turn API оf mapzеn is usеd tо makе this appliсatiоn wоrk. Сliеnt-sеrvеr arсhitесturе is usеd tо dеvеlоp this appliсatiоn. Оn thе сliеnt sidе wе havе usеd JS. Apaсhе Соrdоva appliсatiоn dеvеlоpmеnt framеwоrk is usеd tо dеvеlоp this wоrk intо mоbilе appliсatiоn. This framеwоrk is vеry еasy tо usе, оnly fеw instruсtiоns arе rеquirеd tо bе еxесutеd and yоu arе dоnе with dеvеlоping yоur wоrk intо mоbilе appliсatiоn. An andrоid-basеd mоbilе appliсatiоn is bеing dеvеlоpеd but this framеwоrk сan dеvеlоp mоbilе appliсatiоns fоr оthеr оpеrating systеms tоо. This appliсatiоn is еasy tо usе and its оutput is undеrstandablе fоr еvеryоnе. This is an оnlinе mоbilе appliсatiоn.

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH VERTICAL SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED  WETLAND by Sukhwinderpal Singh 

Abstract
Water is a vital natural resource and covers about one-third of surface of the earth. This is essential for multiple purposes. Its uses include drinking and other domestic uses, industrial cooling, power generation, agriculture (irrigation), transportation and waste disposal. After such anthropogenic activities, haphazard disposal of wastewater is deteriorating water bodies and the surrounding environment in the progressing world. In the modern times, there are several systems to treat municipal wastewater and one of them is Constructed wetland system. Constructed wetland system imparts natural and economical treatment to the wastewater and has been proven sustainable and effective alternative to the conventional treatment systems. In this study, performance of fabricated model of Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSFCW) on which effluent characteristics of Kitchen wastewater and Domestic wastewater like BOD, COD, TSS, Nitrates, Ammoniacal Nitrogen and TKN were studied at two different detention periods i.e. 24 hours and 3 days. The vegetation cover provided to the wetland system was Phragmites australis. Experiment was carried out from month of March to June in the temperature ranging between 30˚C-46˚C. 30% and 61.4% loss of influent through evapotranspiration was observed at 24 hours and 3 days HRT respectively and hence it is an efficient system to minimize highly polluted wastewaters. Kitchen wastewater, when treated at 24 hours HRT shows average percentage removal of 91.71% in BOD, 82.13% in COD, 93.63% in TSS, 57.48% in Nitrates, 57.30% in Ammoniacal nitrogen and 67.73% in TKN and when treated at 3 days HRT shows average percentage removal of 94.14% in BOD, 87.09% in COD, 97.26% in TSS, 86.81% in Nitrates, 83.60% in Ammoniacal nitrogen and 82.54% in TKN. Domestic wastewater, when treated at 24 hours HRT shows average percentage removal of 86.90% in BOD, 54.75% in COD, 84.66% in TSS, 65.35% in Nitrates, 65.81% in Ammoniacal nitrogen and 70.22% in TKN and when treated at 3 days HRT shows average percentage removal of 89.66% in BOD, 72.97% in COD, 93.82% in TSS, 88.95% in Nitrates, 82.59% in Ammoniacal nitrogen and 79.94% in TKN. Kitchen wastewater showed better results than Domestic wastewater. It was found that higher the organic strength of the wastewater better is the removal efficiency of the VSFCW.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF HOWE ROOF TRUSS by Brahamjeet Singh 

Abstract
In design of steel trusses different types of geometries (Howe truss, Pratt truss, Fink truss are etc.) and sections (Angle section, Tube section, rectangular hollow section etc.) are widely used. The purpose of this job is to study the effect of different spacing, span, and pitches, in order to find out the most economical truss by comparing the use of hollow sections and angle sections. The need of this study arises where sometimes it is difficult or taking too much time to choose an effective and economical truss span spacing and pitch during design and construction period. The design was done with the help of Staad pro- V8i software using Limit State Design Method. In present work, “HOWE ROOF TRUSS” of span varying as 10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m has been analyzed for different spacing such as 3m, 4m, 6m and 8m also at the different pitches 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, 1,7 to get the desired economical truss design. In investigating the effectiveness of various truss geometries, a total of 64 truss combinations were analyzed and designed by providing the hollow square sections and angle sections. The analysis of all sets of trusses enables comparisons to be made among the various spans, spacing and pitches. The loads (dead load, live load and wind load) at each panel and node are calculated manually as per Indian Standard Codes IS 800:2007, and IS 875(Part 3)-1987 and then the loads are entered into STAAD PRO-v8i software for analysis and designing of members. Loads are applied on the nodes (member joints considered as pinned joints) of truss the STAAD PRO-v8i output method is used for determining the member forces. After that the load combinations and design were applied according to the design method (Limit State Design Method). In designing of Howe roof truss both the angle sections and square hollow sections were provided to compare the weight of truss. In this Study the truss with a least value of weight is considered as most economical truss. At the end it was concluded that with the increase in spacing of truss the self-weight of truss was also enhanced. In most of the cases the pitch 1/5 and 1/ 6 was concluded as the most economical. Most of the times the trusses provided with angle sections were assumed to be more economical. On the other hand for 30m span with pitch 1/6 the hollow sections gave the economical design of truss. Also in case of 40m span and 1/7 pitch the hollow sections are seems to be more cost effective.

Monday, October 24, 2016

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Electronics

TRAFFIC SPLITTING IN HYBRID VIRTUAL-MIMO SYSTEMS by Pawanjot Kaur

Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become an inextricable part of contemporary era. At the same time, MIMO technology has also been regarded as beneficial due to various advantages offered by it. Ergo, with the collaboration of these two concepts, virtual-MIMO came into existence. This collaboration overcame the major problem of WSNs, energy limitation. V-MIMO has been proved highly effective to increase the network lifetime along with the given constraints of BER, transmission energy and received energy. After several years of its efficient use, hybrid virtual- MIMO system has been developed which utilizes V-MISO and V-SIMO along with V-MIMO, according to the requirement. HV-MIMO provides flexibility to the user as compared to V-MIMO where user is bounded to use only MIMO topology in every hop which sometimes increases the complexity of system. Also, in less dense networks, it is difficult for source node to determine multiple neighbouring nodes. However, HV-MIMO is efficient in all kind of networks because in this system V-MISO and V-SIMO topologies can also be used. This thesis deals with the improvement in HV-MIMO system with the help of traffic splitting which helps to lower the complexity of the system. Delay and throughput are two main parameters which get affected by splitting of traffic. A significant reduction of 50.4% in delay is achieved as compared to V-MIMO system. Similarly, throughput is increased by 15.4 % as compared to conventional V-MIMO systems. Thus, the proposed work would be highly useful for real time applications which need quick transmission and
retrieval of data such as health monitoring and camera surveillance systems.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from Electrical

DESIGN AND FEASIBILITY OF MICRO HYBRID BIOMASS PLANT USING MAGNETO HYDRODYNAMIC GENERATOR AND THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR by Mandeep Kaur 

Abstract
Due to modernization, the power demand is increasing day by day resulting in a wide gap between supply and power demands. Efforts may be oriented towards the search of new sources of energy and has led to the growth of other non conventional methods using renewable sources. As a result, rush to
biomass systems have been promoted around the globe at a very large scale as biomass is used as a raw material either in primary or secondary processing units. Nevertheless, plants using biomass as raw material are promoting problems like carbon dioxide emissions and methane gas emission which are threat to earth’s ozone layer. High ash content and heat release to environment are the harmful effects of biomass plant. In order to get optimal generation conditions, cogeneration of biomass plant is done so as to provide clean energy to environment. For this reason, biomass cogeneration is done using MHD generator, thermoelectric generator so as to increase the reliability and efficiency of the system. Normally the efficiency of boiler is 25-35% but by using the cogeneration, efficiency has increased to 65-85% because flue gases obtained from burning of raw material are cycled again to boiler after passing through MHD and TEG generator. As a result the boiler will need less energy to increase its internal temperature thereby increasing the efficiency of boiler. The flue gases obtained after burning the fuel in boiler is fed to TEG, from where they move to MHD generator. The seeding material is added as the flue gases enter the MHD generator so as to increase the electrical conductivity of the gas. Now, again the flue gases are fed to boiler and consequently the cycle is completed. The output from TEG is utilized by the cogeneration plant itself, so as to fulfill power requirements of the plant such as in cooling systems; fans etc. leading to less power consumption. The other two outputs i.e. from turbine and MHD generator are fed to the grid so as to meet the power demands.