Sunday, December 10, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

Biogas production from food waste and effect of its slurry on Plant growth by Somil Thakur 

Abstract
Increasing population has increased the amount of waste generation leading to a new crisis in the form of solid waste management. Scientists around the world are focusing on the alternatives to utilize this solid waste in an energy efficient way. This solid waste includes both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. Kitchen waste forms a major portion of this biodegradable waste. The presented study is based on utilization of this abundant biodegradable waste for producing biogas which is the best source of renewable energy. Biogas production is an age old concept to produce energy using mainly cattle dung. However, the slurry produced from such plants has always been an issue to discuss. This study provides a solution to this problem by utilization of slurry as compost. The total biogas production was 4290ml, 4450ml, 6430ml, 12210ml, 11175ml in Digester number A, B, C, D, E respectively after 33 days of study. Also best growth of ladyfinger plant was observed by slurry of digester number E. This is a novel work focused on food waste as well as slurry management through biogas production. Different process parameters were analyzed during the process of biogas generation i.e. Total Solids, Suspended Solids, pH and Volatile Fatty Acids etc. This process technology can be further used to set-up small scale biogas plants in households for proper use of gas generation by food waste under natural environmental conditions and efficient usage of slurry
produced.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

Stabilization of Sewage Sludge by Vermi Composting by Sonakshi Gurung 

Abstract
Toxic concentrations of heavy metals have been reported to be present in STPs as many industries dispose their waste directly in domestic sewers without prior treatment and thus they are carried to the sludge generated during the treatment processes. This sludge is directly fed to fields without any proper analysis or treatment which ultimately enters the food chain. This problem can be handled by biodegradation methods to lessen its threat to the environment. This study used one such technique of vermi composting for stabilizing the toxic sludge. Aerobic sewage sludge was assembled from the SBR unit of sewage treatment plant situated at Bhattian, Ludhiana. The work aimed at reducing the heavy metal content (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) from aerobic sewage sludge by the vermicomposting method using earthworm Eisenia foetida with the different activators (Cow Dung, Poultry Manure and Horse Dung) at 50:50 proportion by mass for 105-day period. Vermi-beds of size 3´×3´×0.5´ were set up and the raw material was inserted in the said proportions. The lab and field analysis were performed on regular intervals. The parameters considered for the study were pH, moisture content, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, total potassium, total phosphorus and the heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb). The results showed that both cow dung and poultry manure are commensurable for causing the decomposition of the sewage sludge and were better than horse dung. And for stabilizing the heavy metals, cow dung acted as the best activator. The lab analysis depicted high values of chromium which made it the main toxic element that needed removal. The study further showed that there are high heavy metal contents in the activator themselves which contribute to the high values in the pit material at the initial stages but still considering their stabilization effect they are added. the sewage sludge waste but in case of heavy metals, cow dung acts as the best stabilization material.

Wednesday, December 6, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF STEEL FIBERS ON GFRP WRAPPED CONCRETE BEAMS by Bikramjit Singh 

Abstract
The fiber demand has been increased in civil engineering applications to enhance the properties of concrete. The cost effective technique is needed with this new material which improves the structural properties. The tensile reinforcement can be replaced fully or partially by using steel fibers. From earlier studies, it has been established that steel fiber improves the compressive as well as tensile strength of the concrete. There is an innovative idea to improve the strength and ductility of the concrete by using steel fibers with different proportions along with the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fabric as an external reinforcement. Because steel fibers provide inherent tensile strength to the concrete and GFRP fabric also improves the ductility of the concrete and reduces the corrosion of the member. So this combination of steel fibers and GFRP fabric is a great deal to enhance the post cracking strength of the concrete. So this experimental study is used to compare the flexural strength and ductility of the concrete beams and SFRC beams strengthened with GFRP fabric. The tests were conducted by using length of 60mm of fibers, aspect ratio 80 and volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% by varying steel fiber content. The compression test was conducted on cubes and flexural test on prismatic beams. Then comparison between ductility of conventional concrete beams and SFRC beams and beams wrapped with GFRP Lamina was done. It was found that the load carrying capacity
increased as the fiber content increases from 0.5% to 1.5% and then decreases at 2%. Remarkable rise is noted in flexural strength with an increase in fiber content up to 1.5%. The flexural strength of  SFRC 1.5% beams was increased by 102.5% than control beam and 44.93% than SFRC 1.5% beam without wrapping. The compressive strength of SFRC 1.5% cubes is increased by 20.25% than control cubes. The deflection ductility increases at 1.5% fiber volume fraction in both SFRC beams without wrapping and SFRC beams wrapped with GFRP lamina.

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

HYPO SLUDGE AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT IN CONCRETE by Navraj Kaur Brar 

Abstract
The increasing amount of waste is a concerning reality that has arose the sustainability issues of the environment. Hypo sludge in the paper mill generates a huge amount of waste in the form of slurry, disposal of which causes environmental pollution. The production of cement also accounts for the global warming by releasing carbon dioxide (CO₂) into the atmosphere. Therefore, formulation of concrete with industrial waste can help in minimizing the environmental problems. In this study hypo sludge was used as a replacement of cement in concrete. In present experimental investigation, the various percentages of hypo sludge such as 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% were replaced by cement in concrete. The different parameters with varying proportions of hypo sludge to minimize the use of cement in concrete such as the compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days, flexural strength, split tensile strength and water permeability test at 28 days.

Friday, November 17, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF CEMENT AND CORN COB ASH ON UCS AND DIRECT SHEAR TEST OF CLAYEY SOIL by Gurjap Singh

Abstract
The Soil present in natural conditions may not be appropriate for using it for any type of construction work. Soil present in nature at required site may be have no. of strength deficiencies such as its less tendency to withstand the load due to construction work having lower bearing capacity and high amount of compressibility. Soil therefore thus needs to be stabilized and its properties needs to be modified in appropriate way to gain high strength characteristics before its apllication for any type of construction work. Where agricultural commodities are grown and produced at large scale those nations are facing problems due to large amount of agricultural wastage produced like rice husk,corn cob,sugarcane baggasse.etc. Corn cobs are thrown in the field by farmers as waste. As corn cobs does not decompose easily results in causing numerous problems to surroundings as well as environment. Corn cob ash is produced by burning corn cobs. Corn cob ash rich source of silica and thus having large tendency to behave like pozzolana make it very suitable for using as cementious material. Objective and motive of study investigation is to investigate Soil:Cement:Corn Cob Ash mixture strength improvement by seeing its strength through UCS , DIRECT SHEAR TEST of stabilized soils. These tests were performed by addition of varying Soil:Cement:Corn cob ash mixtures. Having varying value of OMC and MDD. Locally obtained soil was tested by adding varying cement content. Corn cob ash was added in varying amount alongside optimized cement value. 7 and 14 days curing duration was done. For optimum mixture cement 2% and corn cob ash 6% compressive strength enlarged by 257 kN/m2 and 334 kN/m2 as equated to virgin soil strength for 7 and 14 days curing spell respectively. Shear strength for optimum mixture increased by 14kN/m2 as equated to virgin soil strength for 14 days curing spell.Consequently Strength parameters were found showing a sufficient improvement in the strength features of the soil.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

SENTIMENT ANALYSIS ON PUNJABI NEWS ARTICLES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE by Gagandeep Kaur 

Abstract
Sentiment analysis is a field of Natural Language Processing and it is the most trending field of research. In the process of text mining that is used to find out people’s opinion about a particular product, topic and predicting market trends or outcomes of elections, detecting and classifying sentiments from the text. Sentiment analysis on the Punjabi language is to be performed because of increasing amount of Punjabi content over the web, provides an important aspect for the researchers, organizations, and governments to analyze the user-generated content and get the useful information from it. This work basically focuses on mining sentiments and analyzing them for the Punjabi language. With the increase in the amount of information being communicated via regional languages like Punjabi, comes a promising opportunity of mining this information. Nowadays, it is a new trend to read online news in a daily practice. People's opinion tends to be changed as per they read news content. The news content that they read normally about the negative content regarding various things for example rapes, corruption, thefts etc. Reading such negative news is spreading negativity around the society. So there is need to classify the positive and negative news content for creating a positive environment because if they read positive they think positive. Support Vector Machine approach is used by the proposed system to classify the content into different categories of news like crime, entertainment, politics, sports, and weather and then finding its polarity. The results of the proposed system depict remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of sentiment analysis on Punjabi news articles using Support vector machine is found to be 90%.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

DETECTION OF CONVECTIVE CLOUD MOVEMENT by Roopali Kalra 

Abstract
Weather information is very important for human safety, agriculture or to prevent any kind of loss. Clouds play a very important role in balancing energy and water cycle. Also, they are helpful in predicting weather information. There are two forms of clouds which are present in the sky. These clouds are namely stratiform clouds and some are convective clouds. Stratified clouds are known as low clouds. These clouds have uniform base and have horizontal layering. Stratified clouds result into a light mizzle or a small amount of snow and do not indicate much meteorological activity. Convective clouds are ones that form and grow by the process known as convection. Precipitation from these types of cloud is often short-term, heavy and usually begins and ends suddenly. To identify the types of clouds is an important task as if one can have that knowledge before-hand, the damage to life and property which are caused due to heavy rain or storms can be prevented. Convective clouds are high intensity clouds and stratiform clouds are low intensity clouds. The main idea of this work is to extract the high intensity clouds and low intensity clouds from the meteorological images and also check if there is any anomalous movement in the convective clouds. MAXZ image from Doppler weather radar installed in Patiala has been used. The radar covers the various locations in the radius of 250 km from Patiala. The color scale has been used to differentiate two types of cloud. The shape of the clouds has been detected on the basis of area and depending on the shape, the movement of clouds is judged.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

WAVELET BASED ALGORITHM FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF RAINMASS FROM RADAR IMAGES by Rajdeep Kaur 

Abstract
Water is a very important part of human life. Economic scenario of a country highly depends on the rainfall. Rainfall estimation has become very necessary due to day by day increasing global heat level. An enormous amount of rainfall is a serious threat to both life and property because it causes a flood. Therefore, it is important to find where rainfall has occurred, the amount of rainfall and to forecast rainfall. Warnings of the flood can be generated before rainfall occurrence if heavy rainfall is forecasted accurately. Precise prediction of rainfall can be achieved by using accurate rainfall estimation technique. Basically, there are three estimation techniques namely: rain gauge, weather radar and numerical weather prediction model. Among all the three, weather radar provides more accurate information about the rainfall and therefore is widely used in rainfall prediction models. Weather radar measures reflectivity. The reflectivity of weather radar is directly related to rainfall rate. Moreover, weather radar performs short term rainfall prediction, based on the current weather situation. Therefore, a new algorithm using Met Eireann rainfall radar images has been proposed for the identification of rainmass from radar images. Physical and morphological feature of each identified rainmass is extracted. The next movement of rainmass is predicted based on the features of preceding rainmasses identified from the radar images.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CONCRETE BOX GIRDER BRIDGE by Nupur Singla 

Abstract
With more and more infrastructure projects coming up in India and all around the world the economics of bridges have also received a lot of attention in last few decades. Bridges are an essential part of transportation infrastructure of any country. It is becoming increasingly essential for a designer to find out the most efficient solution which could be both safe and economical. Structural behavior and economy of a bridge largely depends upon its span arrangement and geometry. Major geometrical parameters chosen for superstructure is span length, span/depth ratio and number of cells in Box Girder Bridge. Designers use these parameters based on the past experiences and same typical values are used repetitively considering their satisfactory performance. With the advancement of construction technology and invention of high performance concrete it is necessary to revise the conventional values and make the structure more economical. Span-to-depth ratio, also known as slenderness ratio (L/h), is an important bridge design parameter that relates a bridge’s span length to its girder depth. Similarly number of cells in Box Girder Bridge also plays a vital role in structural behavior of a bridge. Hence, all these parameters are considered together to study the effect of their effect on the structural behavior as well as cost of a box girder bridge. In the present work, the effect of Span to depth ratio, span length and number of cells is studied by analyzing and designing Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridge by considering different values of these parameters. Span to depth ratios 15, 20 and 25, Span length 30m, 40m and 50m is considered each for single and double cell Box Girders. Thus, total 18 cases are considered in this study. Detailed analysis is carried out to find out the design bending moment, shear force and deflection values. The analysis of bridge superstructure is carried out in STAAD Pro. Software. From the detailed analysis & design of each configuration, the influence of given parameters is studied on the deflection of Box Girder Bridge. The design as per Indian Standard Codes for each configuration is done. Following that, the drawings are prepared from which the material quantity i.e. Concrete and steel are calculated. Then the rate as per state government schedule is applied to these quantities to obtain the total unit cost of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge superstructure. From the study it is observed that with increase in span to depth ratio, deflection of the structure increases. With increase in ratio, depth decreases which ultimately decrease the quantity of material. This eventually lowers the cost of superstructure. It has been observed from the present study that with change in span length there is significant change in overall steel and concrete quantity for the bridge which leads to huge variation in raw material costs and also the variation in deflection of bridge deck. Similarly number of cells in Box Girder Bridge also plays a vital role in structural behavior and economy of a bridge. 

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF RIB PATTERN ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF REBARS by Jagvir Singh

Abstract
The transfer of forces from rebars to encompassing concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) is affected by numerous parameters. A few endeavors were made to comprehend the impact of bond on worldwide conduct of RC members. However, comparison data on bond strength of various rib patterns for various diameter is inadequate. An attempt was made to contemplate the impact of different parameters on bond, for example, depth of cross ribs, spacing between two neighboring ribs and embedment length. The present study is done on rebar of diameters 12mm, 16mm, 20mm and 25mm. For embedment lengths of 75mm, 150 mm, 225mm, 300mm and 375mm for 12mm diameter, for M25 concrete grade. The bars were inserted in concrete with confinement utilizing spirals reinforcement according to IS 2770:1967. The casting was finished keeping the bars in the vertical position. The anchorage bond specimens were tested utilizing universal testing machine. The bond stress was found to decreasing as the bar diameter increased. Bond failure was seen during pullout test in confined specimens.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SHEAR BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE BEAMS by Jaskaran Singh 

Abstract
In the immediate scenario construction industry utilizing concrete doesn’t promote sustainable form of development. High volume fly ash concrete deal with these cores issues and lays foundation of construction industry towards sustainability. Traditionally, fly ash used in structural concrete as a replacement or supplementary material has been limited to 10–35% cement replacement. In this experimental study laboratory exam were conducted on control concrete and concrete containing 50 % replacement of cement with fly ash that is high volume fly ash concrete. The prime intention of the research was to take note on the shear behaviour of HVFAC beams with two size of coarse aggregates (16 mm, 20 mm) at four percentage of longitudinal steel (0.8%, 1.25%, 1.8%, 2.51%) and compare this with similarly designed conventional concrete beam. From the test results it is indicated that shear strength of the beam having 20 mm aggregate tends to be more in comparison to the shear strength of beam having 16 mm aggregate in high volume fly ash concrete, when the percentage of longitudinal steel is kept same in both cases. The ultimate load carrying capacity and shear strength of concrete increases with increase in percentage of longitudinal steel of beams having same crossection in high volume fly ash concrete as well as in control concrete. Replacement of fly ash with cement in high volume fly ash concrete has led to small decrement in compressive strength of concrete.

Monday, November 6, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from production

COST OPTIMIZATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES by Amanjot Singh

Abstract
In modern era manufacturing units are extra competitive for providing the high-quality products with lowest cost. Organizations have crucial plan to increasing profit, service quality and decreasing total cost i.e. supplier cost, transportation cost etc. in supply chain network. Every company has few aspects of the supply chain network that it must direct and grow beneficially and efficiently to stay alive and raise. Manufacturing industries face many problems in their supply chain network that include- Inability to meet demand for production of products and material, shortage of material/less production, excess of material/more production or holding cost of inventory to keep excess material, high supplier cost and high transportation cost due to mismatch, low profit margin. In the current work artificial intelligence techniques genetic algorithm and pattern search has been used to solve the optimization problem of supply chain network. In supply chain network, total supplier cost and transportation cost has been optimized. A comparison has been carried out with actual cost. From simulation results, we can see that pattern search algorithm gives optimal solution for supplier cost and transportation cost. Thus, pattern search method is effective for solving supply chain network problem. By using this method supplier cost reduced to Rs. 473900 and transportation cost reduced to Rs. 39000 from actual cost.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

TO MITIGATE THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FAULTS ON COMMUTATION OF LCC HVDC SYSTEM by Kamaljeet Kaur 

Abstract
To transfer large amount of direct current power having high amplitude voltage over long distance HVDC transmission system is used. HVDC is abbreviation of high voltage direct current. This system was introduced 60 year ago and now it is widely used all over the world. In power transmission field there are various types of High voltage direct current systems. Some examples are Voltage-Sourced-Converter (VSC), capacitor commutated converter (CCC) and line commutated converter (LCC) dependant HVDC techniques.VSC method used for multi-terminal Direct Current grid, but line commutated direct current method performs better as compare to VSC in broad distance large amount of power transmission due to its efficiency. Various difficulties faced in LCC HVDC system like while voltage is reduced from (10% to 15%) and commutate fails. The LCC HVDC system is having better performance in comparison to others so the analysis is done on this system to reduce the commutation distortion. The 500 kV, 5000 MVA at 60 Hz system is connected to 345 kV, 10000 MVA at 50 Hz system using DC line of 1000 MW, 500 kV and 2 kA line. The 12 pulse monopolar thyristor converter based HVDC system is used for this analysis. The DC fault is having less effect on commutation as compare to the AC single and three phase fault. During DC fault only the distortion is occurring which is minimized with the help of DC filter. During AC faults the commutation failure is occur that is minimized by using IGBT capacitor circuit. The comparison of results is done with the system having no fault and it is conclude that the AC faults are the main reason of commutation failure and that effect is mitigate with the help of IGBT capacitor circuit.