Thursday, February 22, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

SOIL STABILIZATION USING PAPER MILL SLUDGE ASH AND SAW DUST ASH by Jasvir Singh 

Abstract
One of the most problematical soils are expansive soils which are found on every part of earth except polar zones. One of the main problem is their shrinking and swelling behaviour when they come in contact with water. When structures are constructed on these soils, these causes differential settlement which may cause economic burden on developers. Structural stability comes in danger if proper remedial measures are not taken. Many methods and techniques are used to prevent harm caused by these soils. One of best technique which is used since old times, that is soil stabilization. In ancient times additives are added in soils to stabilize it. Now a day many other additives like polymers, waste materials, salts etc. are used to stabilize soil with combination of basic additives like cement, lime, fly ash, bitumen etc. Proper gradations of these additives are added for treating the soil effectively. At present-day waste management is a big problem for industries which is increasing gradually. Many researchers are doing research to use waste materials for soil stabilization which can solve both problems, soil stabilization and waste management. These researches are based on fact that to understand the reaction between lime rich wastes and soil. This study was thus done to study the effect of lime-rich paper mill sludge ash and saw dust ash on properties of expansive soils. Main Properties which are investigated was California bearing ratio and strength. Unconfined strength test was performed to inspect the strength of soil. Also in this test stress strain curve was drawn to check whether material is becoming brittle or ductile with the addition of waste materials. CBR was performed also performed to check suitability of soil for subgrade in flexible pavement. Apart from these properties, the other engineering properties which examined were moisture content and dry density of soil which was needed in UCS and CBR and also atterberg limits and grain analysis of soil sample. Materials which are used for study accompanied by soil samples were paper mill sludge ash which results from burning of sludge produced in paper mills and saw dust ash which produced after burning saw dust. In this study it was noted that soil treated with both two ashes is related to soil treated with lime and cement.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

OPTIMIZATION OF RCC COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND UNIAXIAL MOMENT by Ansh Khurana

Abstract
In the modern development of structures, economy plays a vital role in the industry. So, for the maximum profit for builders and clients, an economical structure that is safe, serviceable and durable, is needed. Now, the cost of the structure can be minimized without deflating the material can only be done by finding a case for each of the structural members/components gives the minimum cost keeping the strength and other parameters satisfied. Columns are important vertical structural elements constructed integrally with framing beams and slabs to carry axial forces and bending moments. For optimization, number of techniques are being used by the researchers. Every technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present work one of the latest developed techniques, namely ‘Ray optimization’ has been used for optimization of RC columns. This technique is based on phenomena of refraction of light. Since the technique is based on a physical phenomenon, it is easy to understand and use. Convergence of the process though depends on certain factors like the size of search space, refractive index, number of local minima etc. In this research, RC columns subjected to axial loading and uniaxial moment have been optimized. The column design depends on many factors as indicated in the interaction diagrams like eccentricity of loading, size of the column cross section, percentage of steel, position of neutral axis, grade of steel, and grade of concrete. Thus, a MATLAB program has been developed for column design with analytical formulae that doesn’t involve use of graphs. Also, a program of Ray optimization algorithm has been written in MATLAB editor and saved as functions. After writing both the programs, they have been associated with each other to work as an optimization tool for column design. Two variables namely depth of neutral axis and percentage of steel in column are considered as independent variables of the optimization problem. Variables like grade of concrete, grade of steel, length and loading are taken as inputs. The algorithm has been tested on certain standard mathematical functions to confirm its veracity and the results obtained thereby were found in concurrence with the standard results. Number of columns for different loadings were designed to validate the effectiveness of ray optimization technique. To check the robustness of the algorithm the optimization process was run multiple times. From the study it could be observed that the most optimum sections are with the cross-sectional dimensions having minimum width and minimum percentage of steel i.e. 0.8%. The study was also carried out to see the effect of different parameters like grade of steel, grade of concrete, number of design agents, variation in refractive index values etc on the optimum results. The observations of which came out to be that with the increase of grade of concrete or steel reduces the column section and thus gives more economical designs. With increasing the no. of agents, the optimum results can be obtained in less no. of iterations and for refractive index 0.5-0.8, the results are most optimum.

Thursday, February 15, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

POSSIBILITY OF RTW & CDW IN STONE COLUMN TO IMPROVE BEARING CAPACITY OF CLAYEY SOIL by Gagandeep Singh 

Abstract
The foundation is the main part for any structure in Civil Engineering which rests on the soil, so ultimately all the load of the structure transfers to the ground. The soil under the foundation should have safe bearing capacity, so that soil beneath the foundation should not fail. As the construction of the superstructure mainly depend upon foundations of that structure, whole structure has been erected on the soil of suitable bearing capacity. But the value of bearing capacity decides the amount of improvement to be done. The improvement may be done by use of piles, piers, caissons and stone columns. Material to be used in stone column are aggregates up to size 100mm. Waste materials generated such as Rubber and Concrete demolition waste can be used as replacement of aggregates. In this present study clay of medium plasticity (CI) used was collected from village lohatbaddi, district Ludhiana (PB). Concrete demolition waste (CDW) was collected from waste of cubes tested in concrete laboratory. Rubber tyre waste (RTW) in crumbed powder form was collected from Speedways tyre industry, Transport Nagar, Ludhiana. In this study an attempt was made to use CDW and RTW in improving bearing capacity of the soil. The percentage of RTW: CDW (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0) was used in this present study. The optimized value of RTW: CDW ratio for single column is (20:80) and optimized L/D ratio of column is 6. Then this percentage was used for L/D ratios 3, 6 & 10 for the number of columns 1,2,3,4&5.The allowable bearing capacity for L/D ratio 6 is more than for L/D ratio 3 & 10 and it was maximum for five number of columns. The allowable bearing capacity with five stone columns was 2-3 times the bearing capacity of soil without
stone columns.

Monday, February 5, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer Science

ASSESSING SEMANTIC INFORMATION OF VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
by Gursimar Kaur 

Abstract
The world of cartography and map making has changed dramatically with the advent of new technological innovations and emergence of the hand-held mobile devices. The features like web mapping and navigation using electronic maps have made the paper maps outdated which lead to introduction of new phenomenon where the volunteers, also known as private citizens collaborate to share geographical information using a popular project called as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Inspired from Wikipedia, OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the most successful project of VGI used for web mapping. It allows its contributors the freedom of global participation to collaborate their local knowledge for open access to everyone. Due to the open tagging scheme, the contributors augment the noisy and ambiguous data as the users have the freedom to use either previously generated tag or define their own. Further, a strict specification model is not used to audit the quality of the contributed data. The aim of the study is to assess the semantic similarity of the tags used to name the geographical feature by taking help of various string searching algorithms. This study implemented the algorithms to measure semantic similarity score of data under observation by assessing the attributes of tags and further divided the results as acceptably similar or not depending on the desired threshold value. The assessment of positional accuracy of linear features depicting real world geographical representation was achieved using the technique involving the creation of a constant width buffer around a line when a circle of fixed distance (also named as epsilon band) is rolled along both sides of the line. The designed approach helped to achieve data completeness and analyse the level of correlation in the given attribute constraints. Comparing the features with the dataset of higher accuracy, the evaluation is not limited to OSM and can be generalized using any other database crowdsourced by volunteers. The developed algorithms gave its contribution to enhance the enormous potential of the ever-rich dataset by improving its quality and alleviating the semantic gap in geospatial information.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronic

AN OPTIMIZED LUNG CANCER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES by Sheenam Rattan 

Abstract
Amongst diverse cancers, lung cancer is measured to be the foremost reason of cancer demise with utmost demise pace. Nodules lying on lungs have distinct structures, they could be either circle or coil shaped which under various circumstances composes the recognition complex. In this work a system has been urbanized for detection of lung cancer in its early stages and classification between malignant and benign tumors via images from Computerized Tomography (CT) scanner. Lung cancer detection process has four steps which includes pre-processing phase, segmentation, feature extraction and lung cancer cell classification. BAT Algorithm is applied to provide considerable optimization results which improves the performance of system. The classification between malignant nodules and benign has been done through Artificial Neural Network Ensemble to provide results of higher accuracy. The overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 98.5%, 100% and 91% respectively is acquired in the system.

Thursday, January 25, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronic

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF CONVOLUTION CODING ON SDR PLATFORM by Gaganpreet Kaur 

Abstract
All the devices and computers work more efficiently than pervious time due to rapid increase of technologies. In yesteryears practical research was very costly in terms of cost and time because that time prototype-circuit boards were used for testing any possible models. In present scenario, computers are powerful enough that it can do digital signal processing tasks which were done by dedicated devices. Moreover, people are becoming techno-savvy and affordable personal computers which are used at homes are also able to do necessary computation in same manner like dedicate devices are executing. Software Defined Radio (SDR) is this correlative kind of device. Translation of the signal processing into software that is run by a regular computer releases a huge number of possibilities at an affordable price. Therefore, easily examine and modify every value of the wireless communication system with the help of software defined radio. The demand of wireless communication systems is increasing day by day. With more and more users to accommodate, the transmission of data over a crowded channel results in loss of data and errors. Therefore, there is need for the platform that is enough flexible to accommodate large number of users with low probability of error. Channel coding is the most important techniques that helps to represent the transmission of source code in such a way that error probability minimizes over the crowded noisy channel by systematic addition of redundant bits. It helps to improve the error rate performance of the communication system, results in better reception. With the increasing demand for efficient standards, Software Defined Radio provides flexibility with low cost solutions for today’s wireless communication needs. In SDR, all the signal processing is done at the software level. In this work, Forward Error Correction codes i.e., convolution coding has been implemented on SDR because it has ability to improve the BER and SER performance of conventional modulation techniques such as PSK and QAM. Audio encoders, which are used for speech compression in radios and other sound systems, can also be enhanced using convolution coding. This will lead to development of new standards that can revolutionize the field of wireless communication.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOOL FOR ASSESSING OSM COMPLETENESS by Sonali Arora 

Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a cumulative effort to create a free presentable map of the world that can be accessed by anyone. OSM is one the most prevalent instance of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). OSM has become one of the great alternative source for Geodata in the recent years. Since OSM is generating large amount of spatial data that has been contributed by users with the different level of mapping experiences and different backgrounds, hence the quality of OSM can vary strongly. For this different studies have been done in which different aspects has been investigated. In most of the studies, ground truth reference datasets have been used for comparison of the data which is called the extrinsic analysis. But extrinsic analysis is not always possible because of lack of availability of ground truth reference datasets. Hence, intrinsic analysis can serve as prominent basis for making the approximate statements on the quality of OSM. The investigation analyses the existing intrinsic frameworks and its limitations and then proposed the new six quality parameters for assessing the completeness of the OSM data effectively. A framework has been developed on the basis of proposed parameters. The results obtained from execution helps in doing the statistical analysis and interpretation by providing the visualizations in the form of barcharts, graphs, tables and maps to assess the quality of data without the help of any ground truth reference data sets. This enables arbitrarily OSM completeness assessment for any part of the world.

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronic

CIPHER BASED ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SCHEME FOR MANET by Neha 

Abstract
MANET is a collection of independent networks. In mobile ad-hoc network, mobile devices are connected through various wireless links. The MANET works on a constrained bandwidth. The network topologies are rapidly changing and may vary from time to time. Each and every device must act as a router and route their packet for transferring any information among each other. Due to its topology, resource constraints, no centralized infrastructure and less security, it is endangered to different attacks and black hole attack is one of them. In this attack, the malicious node claim itself as having the smallest path to the destination and falsely replies to the route requests, and drops all receiving packets. In the past various models and approaches, had been proposed for performance enhancement and detection of malicious nodes in MANET. Various modifications has been done to routing protocols and best path selection, IDS based system has been developed but all of above modification does not provide better data wholeness. To overcome this problem in MANET, in the proposed work malicious node detection and encryption based approach has been used. In the proposed work, AES based encryption approach has been used with AODV routing protocol so that data integrity and confidentiality can be achieved. In this process data messages has been first converted to hexadecimal and then round sub keys were used. After this process shifting of rows and mixing of column has been done so that data can be encrypted and convert to cipher text. Cipher data can be decrypted using on key at decryption process that is reverse of encryption strategy using AES. In the proposed work reverse tracking mechanism has been used for detection of attacker nodes, that degrades performance of the network. In the process of reverse tracking mechanism all the nodes that are one hop neighbor from the source node has been identified by transmitting a message and the reply message has been verified if any message is received from other than single hop communication node then the detection mechanism becomes active for detection of black hole and grey hole attack over the network. Mobility speed is the major concern in MANET that affect the performance of the network. High mobility degrades performance of the network due to lack of route establishment. In the simulation various performance evaluation parameters have been analyzed, which were used for validation of proposed work. These parameters (packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, throughput and network overhead) have been evaluated with respect to time as well as mobility. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that proposed approach provide better performance than EAACK approach.

Thursday, January 4, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

COMPUTER VISION BASED VEGETABLE GRADING AND SORTING SYSTEM by Sukhpreet Kaur 

Abstract
Since ages, agricultural sector plays an important role in the economic development of a country. In recent years, industries have started using automated systems instead of manual techniques for quality evaluation. In agriculture field grading is very necessary to increase the productivity of the vegetable products. Everyday huge amount of vegetables are exported to other places and earn a good profit. So quality evaluation is important in terms of improving the quality of vegetables and gaining profit. Traditionally, the vegetable grading and classification was done through manual procedures which were error prone and costly. Computer vision based systems provides us accurate and reliable results that are not possible human graders/experts. This research work presents a vegetable grading and sorting system based on computer vision and image processing. For this research work, a tomato has been used as a sample vegetable. A total of fifty three images were acquired using own camera setup. Afterwards, segmentation using Otsu’s method was performed so as to separate the vegetable from the background. The segmented images, thus obtained, were used to extract color and shape features. There after grading and sorting was performed using back propagation neural network. Twenty eight images were used for training the network and twenty five images for testing purposes. The proposed system has shown 92% accuracy rate. Also the system was compared with existing tomato maturity based grading system. The present system outperformed the existing system and is proposed for industry use.

Monday, January 1, 2018

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

SOIL STABILIZATION USING RICE HUSK ASH AND POLYPROPYLENE AS WASTE MATERIAL by Vinod Kumar Mishra 

Abstract
Soil is very significant in civil engineering construction. Soil having poor engineering properties may create many problems. For construction of civil engineering structure the soil should have good engineering characteristics for its adequate strength. To make the soil suitable for the desired level of construction, it is necessary to augment the engineering characteristics of soil. There are various methods of improving the engineering properties of soil. The soil stabilization technique is one of the most effective tools used now days for enhancing the engineering properties of soil. But the soil stabilization is becoming costly day by day due to the rise in cost of stabilizing agent like cement, lime etc.On the other hand large quantity of waste material produced from the different industries like fly-ash, rice husk ash, plastic waste, paper mill slag etc. create negative impact on the environment causing environmental pollution and hence safe disposal of these waste material is required .Utilized these waste material as stabilizing agent for improving engineering properties of poor soil is best solution and also using these waste material as a stabilizing agent not only solve the dumping issue but as well as minimize the expenditure of stabilization. In this research work, an extensive laboratory work have been done to explore the use of local available RHA as agricultural waste and waste fibres of the polypropylene for the improvement of the various properties of the Clayey (CI) type of soil obtained from proposed site of D.A.V. public school (junior wing) behind cloth market Ambala City, Haryana (India).In present research work to explore the effect of waste fiber of polypropylene in different length and percentage as reinforcement mixed with optimum amount of RHA stabilized soil. The effect on engineering characteristics of clayey soil such as Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content, Direct Shear Stress, Unconfined Compressive strength was investigated. The investigation results show that with the addition of rice husk ash and fibre contents the Maximum Dry Density decreases and the optimum water content increases, the most appropriate percentage of RHA is found to be 9%, the Shear parameter i.e. Cohesion (c) of the 9% RHA stabilized soil reinforced with waste fibres of polypropylene with 20 mm length and 0.30% weight of polypropylene by weight of dry soil sample, is found to be increased by 28.05% and angle of Shearing Resistance (Φ) found to be increased by 64.24% and the Unconfined Compressive Strength of the 9% RHA stabilized reinforced soil found to be increased by 59.34% with 20mm length and 0.30% by weight of dry soil sample. The optimum percentage of clayey soil: Rice Husk Ash: Polypropylene for improvement of clayey soil found to be 90.7: 9: .3 of 20mm length

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from industrial

A STUDY TO INVESTIGATE VIBRATION EXPOSURE AMONG ON ROAD TRACTOR VEHICLE DRIVERS by Chander Prakash 

Abstract
For being an agricultural country, over 60 percent of India’s land area is arable, contributes to 16 percent of GDP and employment of 65 percent of total workforce. All such contributions couldn’t be possible without modernization of agriculture by means of mechanized machinery such as tractors. On the contrary, tractors have been found to be a major source of occupational whole body vibration which may affect human ride comfort. So, present study has been undertaken to investigate occupational whole body vibration exposures among tractor drivers while performing on-road as well as in-field harrowing operation. Ten (10) male drivers having mean age 25.10±3.78 years, body mass 75.3±8.54 Kg, stature 1.548±0.01 meter and body mass index 31.43±3.48 Kg/m2 were considered for conducting experimental runs. A total of three hundred sixty (360) experiments were conducted. It has been found that majority of vibration exposure levels in vertical axis were found to be exceeding exposure action value (EAV) as recommended by ISO 2631-1 1997 under on-road operations at 1500 as well as 2000 RPM levels. However, such exposure levels were observed to be exceeding EAV level in x, y and z axes under harrowing operation at 1500 RPM. Moreover, exposure values found above than exposure limit value (ELV) at 2000 RPM. Consequently, postural variation also showed varying vibration responses among all the selected subjects under different experimental conditions. The daily exposure A(8) and daily dose (VDVexp) value were also exceeding ISO exposure limits which may lead to severe health disorders if exposed to such vibrations for long term. Although, 1/3 octave analysis depicted a dominant frequency range of 3.15-4 Hz among all the subjects under entire on-road experimentation. While, frequency about 10 Hz found to be dominant under harrowing operation at both 1500 and 2000 RPM levels. Hence, it has been concluded that tractors needed more
designing efforts in order to damp vibration levels. In addition to it, suitable working time might be planned for operating tractor for various applications accordingly so vibration levels remains up to ISO exposure limits.

Tuesday, December 26, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF NUMBER OF CELLS IN 2-LANE AND 4-LANE PRE-STRESSED BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK by Romila 

Abstract
Bridges are the key elements in any road construction network, use of box girder is gaining popularity in bridge engineering fraternity because of its better stability, serviceability, economy, aesthetic appearance and structural efficiency. The structural behavior of box girder is complicated, which is difficult to analyze in its actual conditions by conventional methods. In present study 2- lane & 4-lane Prestressed Box Girder Bridge is analyzed for moving loads, dead load & Prestressed load, as per Indian Road Congress IRC:6-2014 “standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges”, Prestressed Code IS: 1343-2012: code of practice for Prestressed concrete& IRC:18-2000 for “Prestressed Concrete Road Bridges” specifications. The analysis of box girder is done by using CSIBridge2016 and Prestressed with parabolic tendons which utilize full section. The various spans 40m, 50m & 60m are considered to study the effect of no. of cells for 2-lane & 4-lane at which stresses, B.M, S.F and deflection are compared.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF 14nm 7-FIN SOI FINFET  by Gurleen Kaur

Abstract
Scaling of standard CMOS is becoming difficult due to rising subthreshold leakage and gate leakage.
FinFETs i.e. Multi-gate FETs have come out as the most assuring contenders to extend the scaling of
CMOS insub-25nm region this is because of more electrostatic control due to use of multiple gatesover the channel which lowers the coupling between drain and source in the subthreshold regime. Both bulk and SOI FinFETs are capable of attaining similar performance. Bulk FinFETs need more convoluted doping implementation. Variability control is complex in bulk FinFETs. Dielectric isolation in SOI FinFETs results in reduced leakage current and parasitic capacitances. Sharper subthreshold slope, lower mobility degradation and smaller body effect can be achieved with SOI MOSFETs when operated in full depletion mode. Driving capability for small voltage designs can be increased by use of SOI FinFETs. This results in diminished threshold voltage roll off, reliable narrow junctions, absolute removal of latch up problems. In this thesis work, 14nm 7-fin SOI FinFET is designed and analysed using Visual TCAD. And it’s V-I characteristics are obtained and also Ion , Ioff , Ion /Ioff ratio, SS and Vth is calculated from that. And Ion /Ioff ratio is optimized w.r.t. Temperature and Oxide thickness variation using PSO.