Tuesday, October 17, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer science

Skeletal Bone Age Assessment using Neural Network by Anchal

Abstract 
Computers have been generally utilized as a part of the field of restorative research in the course of recent consicousness. One of the developing investigates in medicinal imaging is to appraise age of the consicousness or departed person. Skeleton age appraisal is a strategy for assessing the level of skeletal development in kids. By and large, it is connected physically by looking at a X-beam of a left hand, wrist with a standard specimens as map book in the medical system. The manual techniques are inclined to fluctuation of perception, tedious and restricted to target choices. These are huge inspirations for programmed strategy for skeleton age appraisal. This technique tries to beat the issues of directing BAA in manual strategies. Bone Age Evaluation (BAA) is specifically relative to Skeletal (Bone) development appraisal. AE is simply in view of the considering the distance and state of different skeletal, so radiographic pictures are must for live human. These radiographic therapeutic pictures must be very much prepared for better evaluation utilizing different Picture Handling Strategies. In this proposition work, a multiscale organizing component is utilized to upgrade the X-beam of a left hand-wrist utilizing round shape organizing component at various scales to remove brilliant and dim parts at all scales and its neighboring scales. The proposed calculation is utilized to remove the element in light of guideline part examination. It remove the special properties of the sifted picture. It creates two sorts of the component separating in surface structures i.e eigen vectors and eigen values. At that point they group the extricated include utilizing Back engendering Neural System. In BPNN calculation creates the two stages i.e preparing and testing stage, In preparing state we recognize the execution in light of ages, times and approval checks. Presently in next stage, we actualize the testing stage which is identify the age of the bone and after that  assess the execution parameters like false acknowledgment rate, false dismissal rate and exactness. Last, we
contrast the execution parameters and the current work

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer science

Outcome Based Predictive Analysis of Automated Question Paper using Data Mining by Simranjeet Kour Bindra 

Abstract
In recent years, data mining became very popular in providing useful application in diverse fields. Large amount of data elements are stored in the database. Various data mining algorithms are used to classify the data elements and perform different operations for finding best solution based on relational parameters. This research incorporates architecture for an automated question paper based on Revised Blooms taxonomy. The entire examination process is a vital component for direct assessment of an individual learning. So, preparing a complete test paper and the setting it according to instruction is relatively necessary. Currently, the convention technique of making question paper has been handbook. In current scenario the question paper generation is a manual approach leading to unproductive most of the time owing to bias, repetition and security concerns. The work proposed presents an automatic procedure of question paper generation capable of being modified, streamlined, synchronized and secured. Several tasks done by the proposed system are automatic leading to reduced storing space, bias and security issues. Earlier, the question paper was generated by academic teacher manually and was very time consuming, man power was required and sometimes the question paper lacked accuracy. Outcome Based Education (OBE) predicts the student ability to acquire concepts of a particular course, program and be able to apply the acquired knowledge in future. The information related to student learning was collected for question paper generation and assessment using OBE. This information can be used to predict student’s ability, advancements in education system, betterment in teaching method, future interest of student etc. Various data mining algorithms like oneR, ZeroR, J48, Naive Bayes, IBk are used for prediction of the Course Outcome. The research includes comparative study based on parameters like time, detection accuracy, classification error etc. for assessing the performance of the predictive model generated using classification algorithm.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer science

SEGMENTATION OF PELVIS TO DETECT THE OVARIAN CANCER USING NEURAL NETWORK by Beant Kaur

Abstract
The tumor is a standard term for a large set of diseases that can affect any portion of the body. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs, the latter process is referred to as metastasizing. Metastases are a key cause of death after cancer. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer affecting women today. In fact, ovarian cancer is responsible for more deaths than any other type of female reproductive cancer. Ovarian cancer is a cancer that begins in the ovaries. The ovaries are female generative organs situated in the pelvis, approximately the size of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) for reproduction. The eggs travel through the Fallopian tubes into the uterus where the fertilized egg implants and develops into a fetus. The proposed system provides various view angles of image that used to detect the problems and calculate high accuracy rate. The proposed algorithm is used to feature extraction technique using SIFT algorithm. Any object there are many features, interesting points on the object, that can be extracted to provide a description of the object. This description can then be used when attempting to locate the object in an image containing many other objects. In genetic algorithm used to optimize the extracted feature with the help of the fitness function. In fitness function depends upon three parameters i.e, each feature, total features and classification error rate. The detection of the ovarian cancer and stages found using a convolution neural network. The accuracy is achieved with CNN classifier is 98.8% and with SVM is 85.01%. The performance parameters used are Sensitivity, Specificity and accuracy.

Monday, October 16, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from production

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF ROLLER BURNISHING PROCESS ON GUNMETAL BUSH by Pooja Khanna 

Abstract
The burnishing process is a type of chip-less finishing process in which the metal surface is lastically
deformed by rubbing the hardened material ball or rollers against the workpiece material. Most of the work in the past has been performed on ball burnishing and single roller burnishing. The ball burnishing process comes along with the limitation of feed which leads to longer cycle times. In case of ball burnishing, work piece of longer length could not be burnished as it bends because of the point contact between ball and the work piece. Thus, in order to eliminate the flaws, an attempt has been made. To remove the limitations of previous works, multi roll burnishing tool has been developed to finish the inside of the Gunmetal cylindrical bush. Taguchi method is used to study the effect and contribution of the burnishing parameters such as speed (rpm), feed and number of passes. Trends of surface roughness revealed that maximum surface finish is obtained at low speed and intermediate level of passes. The feed comes out to be an insignificant parameter. Trends of surface hardness revealed that maximum hardness is obtained at maximum speed and maximum number of passes. The feed rate comes out to be insignificant in this case also. The contribution of parameters is found to be accurate at 95% confidence level. The optimization is carried out through confirmatory experiments.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

HDL IMPLEMENTATION AND ASIC DESIGN OF 4096-POINT RADIX-2 FFT IN 0.18μM CMOS TECHNOLOGY by Pulkit Jain 

Abstract
In Digital Signal Processing (DSP), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and its hardware implementation play a significant role. To implement FFT in hardware, fixed point arithmetic is preferred over floating point as it is simple to execute and also saves area and power. This thesis presents HDL implementation and ASIC design of 4096-point Radix-2 FFT using fixed-point arithmetic targeted for upcoming Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based upcoming communication and wireless and applications. The finite bit representation of signals and coefficients in fixed point result in quantization error which degrades FFT performance. This thesis presents a standard and a modified radix-2 DIT butterfly to evaluate quantization noise effects in terms of Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR). The VHDL code has been designed and simulated using Questa-Sim and verified by designing MATLAB models. The synthesis and simulation results have been presented and compared with the standard version of the design followed by Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) design in 0.18 μm CMOS Technology. The required frontend design has been carried out by using Synopsis-Design Compiler and backend design by using Synopsis– IC Compiler. Finally design of some major blocks of radix-4 architecture has been carried out.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

EARLY DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY USING EMPIRICAL TRANSFORMS AND SVM by Sumandeep Kaur 

Abstract
Diabetic Retinopathy is the name given to „disease of retina‟. This is the disease in which the blood vessels in light-sensitive tissue, known as retina, are affected due to diabetes. It comprises of various impacts on eyes such as swelling, leakage and blockage of the blood vessels in an eye. During the initial stages, patients remain unaware of this disease due to lack of easily detectable symptoms in them. But at the later stages, diabetic retinopathy may lead to visual impairment or even blindness.The objective of this work is for timely diagnosis and classification of diabetic retinopathy using curvelet transform and support vector machine is developed. Diabetic retinopathy is detected by discovering haemorrhages and exudates in the fundus images. Firstly, retinal images are enhanced using empirical transform. Canny edge detection is applies for extracting eyeball from retinal fundus image. Then morphological operations are applied for locating the imperfections in the images. At the end, images are classified into normal, proliferative or nonproliferative by using support vector machine. Both accuracy and sensitivity of the images is improved when compared with previous technique in which only k-means and fuzzy classifier is used. So, this approach could be employed for medical purposes. Hence, enhancement of images using curvelets helps to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of detection and classification. The number of exudates detected in present work is more than that of the process without enhancement. Also, the accuracy of detection system depends upon the peak signal to noise ratio in the image. If the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is less, number of exudates detected by noisy image are far less than when detected with the curvelet denoised images. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of system are calculated as 96.77%, 100% and 97.78% respectively.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

STABILIZATION OF CLAYEY SOIL WITH FLY ASH AND BONE POWDER by Jagwinder Singh 

Abstract
Stabilization has been defined as any process by which a soil material is improved and made more stable. If the soil is weak or loose than by the use of controlled compaction, proportioning and/or by the addition of suitable admixture or stabilizers the properties of soil changes. Stabilization come about into increase in the shear strength of a soil or potentially control of the shrinkage and swell properties of a soil. Stabilization is done by adding certain chemicals materials into the soil that alter the properties of soil. The bone powder and Fly ash is one of them. In the present study, work is done by adding the bone powder and fly ash into the soil. These have good pozzolanic property to bind the particles and to enhance the properties of the soil. In this study Compaction, CBR and UCS  parameters are determined. In first phase of study, just Fly Ash was utilized as a stabilizer with a rate of 15%, 20% and 25%. In second phase of study just Bone powder was utilized as a stabilizer with a rate of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%. In third stage combined effect of Fly ash and Bone powder was used. From the outcomes it can be concluded that with increase in the content of fly ash Dry density decreases and with addition of bone powder dry density increases. Whereas OMC increases with addition of fly ash and reduces with addition of bone powder. Dose of 20% fly ash and 7% bone powder is taken as ideal. Upto 20% fly ash and 7% bone powder the UCS and CBR value increases. The soil shows significant increase in the CBR value and UCS value with addition of these stabilizers. For unsoaked condition, the CBR value increases from 3.50 to 8.90 with addition of these stabilizers and UCS value after 14 days curing increases from 344.96 kN/m2 to 1226.96 kN/m2.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 5G NETWORK BASED ON BDMA AND MASSIVE - MIMO by Shweta Vij

Abstract
5th generation wireless systems, also abbreviated as 5G, is the next proposed telecommunications standards beyond present 4G standard. Main aim of 5G network is capacity enhancement with the deployment of large number of antennas (Massive MIMO) whereas LTE focuses on high speed rather than capacity. LTE- A is the advanced version of LTE with the advancement in its features as well. LTE-A supports bandwidth of 100 MHz to 6GHz, therefore below 6GHz, 5G network will operate on LTE-A network and above 6 GHz range 5G will offer large bandwidth with small coverage area due to path loss at high frequencies. This work presents capacity analysis with the help of BDMA and Massive MIMO techniques where outage probability considered is 10%, performance analysis of 5G networks on BDMA using different modulation techniques and reduction of interference using beamforming. It has been observed that BER decreases as SNR increases in case of all the modulation schemes used: BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM and 16PSK on BDMA in case of LTE-A and 5G and OFDMA in case of 4G. Results of simulation show that lower BER is achieved in case of BPSK. Also, capacity analysis proves that as the number of antennas is increased capacity of the system improves drastically. Beamforming technique used for interference reduction provides improvements in case of low number of antennas. Improvement of about 70% is achieved when BDMA is used in LTE-A networks with BPSK providing best results and capacity improvement of about 65% is obtained with the use of Massive MIMO technology and interference reduction of 60% achieved in case of lower number of antennas by using beamforming.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF 14nm FINFETS WITH DIFFERENT FIN SHAPES by Srishti 

Abstract
With the development in semiconductor industry, the size of FETs has scaled down from deep sub-micron to nanometer domain. But literature shows that beyond 22 nm, it is almost impossible to scale the dimensions of MOSFET with acceptable SCEs. As a solution, field effect transistors such as FinFETs have emerged as novel devices having superior controls over short channel effects than the conventional MOS transistor devices. It is also observed that fin shape has considerable impact on SCEs. In the view of above issues, this thesis explores FinFET devices at 14 nm technology. In this work, the FinFETs with different fin shapes have been designed using TCAD. Literature shows that the performance of FinFET is influenced by parameters like fin width, height, angle etc. So, to examine the clear effect of top fin width on performance of FinFET; the fin height & other parameters are kept constant. And optimum top fin width with higher drive current & lesser possible leakage current is achieved. Trapezoidal fin FinFETs with different dimensions of top fin width were designed and simulated. The impact of fin shape has been evaluated in terms of V-I characteristics, performance parameters like Ion, Ioff, Ion/Ioff and SCEs. The performance improvement was observed in terms of Ioff, Ion/Ioff, Subthreshold Swing, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering and power dissipation with the reduction in top fin width. But reduction in top fin width slightly degraded the performance in terms of Ion. To verify these simulation results, the FinFETs with similar trapezoidal fins were simulated at 20nm technology and compared with the available literature. This comparison depicted the improvement in the present work. Then using the artificial neural network training and particle swarm optimization algorithm, optimum top fin width was obtained. Further, the FinFET with achieved optimum top fin width was simulated on TCAD to check the accuracy of the results. The optimization results after ANN & PSO and TCAD simulation results of optimum top fin width are quite close with an error of 0.48%.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

IMPLEMENTATION OF A HYBRID OPTICAL FIBER-FSO LINK ON WDM SYSTEM FOR BIDIRECTIONAL COMMUNICATION  by Divnoor Kaur 

Abstract
With the advent of the technology it has become quite easy to transmit and receive the information. Talking about the fiber optics, which offers numerous advantages like secure transmission, accommodation of large bandwidth (20 GHz), and high data rates (10 Gbps). Also, we know that a natural calamity or an emergency situation does not warn before coming. During such a situation it may happen that the optical fiber which is used for the transmission of the information gets damaged, which in turn will break the process of the communication. So, in order to address such a situation a technology known as free space optics (FSO) can be used as an alternative, with which the communication will not be hampered. FSO is a technology which uses light that propagates via atmosphere, to wirelessly transmit the data for telecommunications. FSO technology is simple and offers many advantages like easy installation, low power per transmitted bit, free spectrum license and the ability to transmit high data rates (up to 100 Gbps) over a distance of 1-4 Km. FSO includes a transmitter as well as a receiver in order to provide bidirectional communication. In this, an optical source and a lens is used to transmit the information via free space to the receiving lens for receiving the information. So, by combining the above two technologies that is fiber optics and free space optics, a system can be made which ensures seamless bidirectional communication even in the case of emergencies. The current work is carried out using OptisystemTM which demonstrates bidirectional communication on optical fiber (OF) and FSO system. Eight channels are used each for upstream as well as for downstream at 10 Gbps. To monitor the condition of the optical fiber, a WDM fiber-bragg grating (FBG) sensor is used, which is monitored by using a FBG detector, which includes a rectangular filter, power meter and an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). In case the optical fiber breaks, the transmission link will quickly be altered from Optical Fiber to FSO ensuring continuity in the communication. Afocal scheme has been implemented in the FSO path which has resulted in the increase of FSO transmission distance from 10 m to 30.15 m. System performance is measured in the terms of BER, Quality factor (Q-factor) and the eye-diagram. A considerable improvement in the terms of BER and eye-diagram has been obtained. The openness of the eye in the eye-diagram indicates a high quality signal transmission. For the signal propagation through the Optical Fiber path, BER of value 10-48 and Q-factor of 14.4589 has been obtained, while for the signal propagation through FSO, BER of value 10-73 and Q factor of value 18.0193 has been achieved. Also, by incorporating Dispersion Compensating Techniques, BER value has been improved from 10-18 to 10-48.

Monday, October 9, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

BEHAVIOR OF SPECIAL REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME AND NORMAL FRAME WITH OR WITHOUT MASONARY INFILL by Jaspreet Kaur 

Abstract
Comprehensive study has been led to access the security of existing masonry infilled frame under earthquake loading. The reinforced concrete frame is generally constructed with unreinforced infill or
reinforced infill. Although masonry infill walls are used in buildings very commonly but its influence is not considered in any code. IS 1893 considers the impact of infill just as far as normal time of vibration. But same equation is also used without infill. Thus effect of infill is not considered due to lack of sufficient information. In this research work investigation of masonry infilled frame and bare frames using FEM based ATENA 3D software. To study the means and methods of modeling of RC infilled frames and bare frames, a review of work is conducted. Micro modeling approach is used for modeling of infilled frames. In this study finite element analysis is done to conduct the behavior of RC frames . It showed that RC frame with ductile detailing gives more load carrying capacity than non-ductile frames. This approach of modeling is quite difficult and time consuming but this approach is best suitable to check the effect of masonry infill.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 64 CHANNEL IS-OWC SYSTEM THROUGH CHIRPED, AMI AND DPSK MODULATION TECHNIQUES by Ravneet Kaur

Abstract
Inter-satellite Optical Wireless communication has been a hot research area, where modulation techniques are useful due to its enormous advantages and applications in satellite network. While FSO systems are used for transmission of data and signals, but due to turbulences and pointing errors, they are less used.IS-OWC system is preferred due to high bandwidth, free from turbulences, immunity to RF and microwave frequencies. IS-OWC system while implemented with WDM systems provides high capacity, less bit errors and huge security. The current work carried out using Optisystem software demonstrates IS-OWC system with the modulation techniques which is the best challenge for future communication system because it has the resistance to dispersion, four wave-mixing and improved narrow band filtering. Modulation techniques have been useful to provide integration with WDM systems as WDM multiplexer allows 64 multliplexers to multiplex signals using EDFA and OWC channel with the use of Loop Control. This technique increases the efficiency of the system. In this thesiswork, Ultra-high capacity IS-OWC systems having 64 channels are designed using modulation techniques at bit rates of 10, 20 and 40 Gbps.Here the proposed IS-OWC system is implemented using Chirped modulation, Alternate mark inversion and Differential phase keying modulation technique. The results of the proposed system is measured at different bit rates and distances and thus compared at the range of 750 nm. Performance analysis in terms of Q-Factor, Optical Spectrum Analyzer, BER and Eye Height has been done. From the results, it has been concluded that DPSK modulation technique gives best performance with the Q-Factor of 20 and BER OF 1.5 and 10-91than the other techniques at the bit rates of 10 Gbps and 20 Gbps. DPSK shows 60% improvement in terms of Q-Factor respectively. AMI modulation technique can provide best Q- factor of 4.08 and improvement of 40 % at bit rate of 40 Gbps for a distance of 2500 km. Chirped Modulation achieves good performance at 10 and 20 Gbps. It is observed that IS-OWC systems using three different modulation techniques works well at 10 Gbps than 20 Gbps and 40 Gbps. The main challenge for this system is to eliminate noise, chromatic dispersion, selfphase and cross-phase modulation. So these modulation techniques improve the bandwidth, capacity and data rates of the proposed IS-OWC system.

Tuesday, October 3, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF XGM BASED FSO SYSTEM BY EMPLOYING HYBRID AMPLIFIERS AND SPATIAL DIVERSITY TECHNIQUE by Sukhjeet Kaur 

Abstract
Fso (Free Space Optical Communication) is that technique which is capable of working at bandwidth which is high and also having much acceptable data rates. Because nowadays internet is in trend, the capacity of speed of data should be very high. In other words, Free space optical (fso) communication is that type of communication technique which is effective in cost and having excessive bandwidth, whose demand has increased with recent commercialization utility. FSO communication technique is utilised in various telecommunication applications, underwater communication applications, intersatellite applications, indoor communication etc. Apart from these prevalencies, because of proliferation in free space, the signal gets deflated and information is lost till it arrives the receiver. These aspects affecting the exchange of information in FSO ought to have amplifiers to improve the information transmission from transmitter and receiver. Thus, in the optical field of communication, reclamation of signals electronically have become very costly process. Different power amplifiers have been employed which are capable of converting optical to electronic signals with much admissible costs. Here, various combinations of these amplifiers are analysed with spatial diversity technique in FSO. Amplifiers are used as hybrid amplifiers in order to overcome each amplifier’s obstruction. High peculiarity can be gained by using the technique of spatial diversity which is a process of posting several copies of same signal which is to be transmitted. Authenticity and availability of the FSO system is increased by concurrently transmitting same signal. Moreover BER degradation that's produced by way of atmospheric turbulence is diminished by using diversity. Highquality of the signal decreases due to environmental effect like fog, haze, rain and dirt in free space optical communication system. In spatial diversity, it is viable to lessen fading and in response greater traits of signal may be increased. The proposed system consists of 8 Tx/Rx as a spatial diversity technique along with hybrid amplifiers being placed on both transmitter as well as receiver side not only in series but also in parallel. Simulations are performed using Optisystem software and it has been observed that in proposed system EDFA-EDFA proves to be the best combination when employed either in parallel and series with less BER as compared to other two hybrid combinations for clear and haze weather. By using this parallel EDFA-EDFA combination Q-Factor is increased to 69.16 % as compared to SOA-EDFA and 11.43% when compared to RAMAN-EDFA in clear weather condition.Moreover while placing this combination in series Q-Factor is increased to 45.98% as compared to SOA-EDFA and 10.61% when compared to RAMANEDFA in haze weather condition. While analysing in Foggy weather in parallel configuration, RAMANEDFA performs better with its Q-Factor being increased to 50.3%comparing with SOA-EDFA and 4.5% as compared to EDFA-EDFA. Moreover power received is greater in parallel combination of amplifiers rather than placing them in series but errors are more in parallel than series configuration. EDFA-EDFA gives best results at 40 Km with much acceptable Quality Factor in clear weather, 6 Km in case of Haze weather and 3Km in Foggy weather in both series and parallel.